|Home||Statistics Main Page||2000 UCR Statistics Table of Contents||News and Events|
|Section I||Section II||Section III||Section IV||Section V||Section VI|
|Section VII||Section VIII||Section IX||Section X||Section XI||Section XII|
The New Jersey Uniform Crime Reporting Law (N.J.S.A. 52:17 B-5.1 et. seq.) was enacted on May 16, 1966, and became effective January 1, 1967. Responsibility for the establishment, direction, control, and supervision of the Uniform Crime Reporting System was assigned to the State's Attorney General. The Attorney General authorized the New Jersey State Police to collect and collate the crime data received from law enforcement agencies within the state.
At the request of the Attorney General, the New Jersey State Police researched crime systems in operation throughout the nation in order to establish a firm foundation from which to grow. The most logical approach was the paralleling of the federal crime reporting system. There was a distinct need for a compatibility feature that would enhance both the state and federal systems through the data entry at both levels.
This compatibility has, as its nucleus, the standard classification of offenses established by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Regardless of the label placed on a particular offense in the various states' systems, i.e., felony, misdemeanor, disorderly persons, if the incident meets the federal standard it will be reported as an offense.
The terms "crime" and "offense" are used interchangeably in this publication, and refer to an act committed in violation of a law which is reportable under the guidelines of the Uniform Crime Reporting Program.
The New Jersey State Chiefs of Police Association has served the program in an advisory capacity since 1966. The contributions of this association have proved valuable to the success of the program. This association works in close harmony with the State Police as a means of improving the quality of reporting through recommended program standards, policies and procedures.back to top
COLLECTION OF CRIME DATA
As required by statute, all law enforcement agencies in the state submit monthly and annual summary crime reports to the program. During the year 2000, offense and arrest data were received from 481 full-time municipal police departments, three (3) part-time municipal police departments, and the New Jersey State Police (acting as the reporting agent for the 73 municipalities without local police services). In addition to the 481 full-time municipal police departments there are nine (9) police departments contracted by other municipalities.
In addition to the above agencies, arrest data was received from the state's twenty-one (21) prosecutors, sheriffs' departments, three (3) county police departments, and two (2) county park police departments. In order to incorporate all New Jersey law enforcement agencies under the system, the ten (10) other state agencies with law enforcement responsibilities, excluding state police, as well as thirteen (13) college campus police departments were incorporated within the program. Collectively, a total of 555 law enforcement agencies submit the reports to the New Jersey State Police.back to top
A State of New Jersey Uniform Crime Reporting Guide has been distributed to all contributors. It outlines reporting procedures in detail, and is complete to the extent of providing examples and illustrations. Field representatives provide additional instruction and clarification when required.
All reported offenses are related to the municipality in which they occur rather than to the agency which may conduct the investigation. The clearance is credited to the municipality in which the offense occurred. Each contributing agency is responsible for compiling its own reports. Law enforcement agencies report the number of known offenses according to the following categories: Homicide (Murder and Manslaughter), Rape, Robbery, Burglary, Larceny-Theft, Motor Vehicle Theft, and Arson. The "Crime in New Jersey," and the Federal Bureau of Investigation's "Crime in the United States" publications exclude manslaughters, simple assaults, and arsons from the "Index" offenses. These are further referred to as "violent" and "nonviolent" crimes as graphically illustrated in Section VII under "Municipal and County Offenses and Demographic Data," and Section II, "State Summary and Offense Analysis."
All reported offenses are compiled from a record of all criminal complaints received by police from victims or other sources, or discovered by the police during routine operations. Complaints determined to be unfounded are eliminated from this count. Analytical data pertaining to specific crime categories are also reported, i.e. total adult and juvenile arrests made during the month. Police killed or assaulted and arson data are also collected monthly. Police personnel information is submitted on an annual basis.
back to top
FLOW CHART OF UCR REPORTS
|back to top
The uniformity and accuracy of data gathered from contributors must be safeguarded through various ways. Although guidelines and instructions are provided to each contributor, they are not the panaceas for the accuracy being sought.
The reports received by the Uniform Crime Reporting Unit are recorded and examined for mathematical accuracy and reasonableness of the interpretation of the offense classifications. Improper classifications, changes in reporting procedures, or actual change are identified in this manner. Errors of a minor nature are corrected by direct telephone contact with the contributors, while all other errors are resolved through a personal visit by a field representative to the reporting agency.
Further verification is accomplished through the analysis of statistical data accrued from the reports submitted. Fluctuations in crime rates noted from previous submissions are verified by the field representatives through their municipal counterpart.back to top
Police executives make use of this data in administrative, planning, and operational determinations for their respective jurisdictions. The State Police Uniform Crime Reporting Unit provides assistance to municipal police agencies through the individual analysis of statistics as they relate to specific crime problems within their jurisdiction. Police executives also use this data for identifying manpower and equipment needs. The Uniform Crime Reporting Program requirements not only have increased police efficiency in reporting and record keeping areas, but have helped police in their day to day operations.
Although the data collected on the offenses of manslaughter and simple assault are not presented in the annual report, they are required for the federal system. However, this data is processed and available for special research purposes.back to top
PROFILE OF NEW JERSEY
New Jersey is situated between the major industrial markets of New York and Philadelphia and can be classified as the "Crossroads of the East." The geographic location of the state has been a major factor in its growth and development. The many miles of super-expressway facilities within the state connect New Jersey directly with the neighboring states of New York, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. Additionally, New Jersey as a corridor state, accommodates large volumes of traffic from both the eastern and western part of the United States.
The state is geographically composed of 21 counties which contain 566 incorporated municipalities. Nationally, New Jersey, although 46th in size, ranks ninth in population and first as the most densely populated state in the country. In addition to this density of 1,122.6 persons per square mile, New Jersey still has many miles of rural areas and sparsely settled communities. The areas of density show a heavy concentration around the major urban centers and those areas most accessible for commuting.
back to top
STATE, COUNTY AND MUNICIPAL PROFILES
The presentation of state, county and municipal profiles in this section is offered for the purpose of projecting, for the consideration of the reader, a group of recognizable factors which may affect the amount and type of crime that occurs from community to community. Selection of the areas of information to be related to individual municipalities was based on the immediacy and completeness of data available.
Population statistics presented here, and throughout this publication, were obtained from the Department of Labor, Division of Labor Market and Demographic Research.
Character of municipalities by urban, suburban and rural classifications, and square miles, were initially compiled by the Department of Community Affairs, Division of State and Regional Planning, Section of Statewide Planning, and will continue to be used for comparative purposes. Following is a list of categories used and a description of each category.
Certain other socioeconomic factors present in varying degrees in all communities may have an influence on resulting crime rates. Obvious difficulties in the identification, documentation and measurement of these factors, however, precluded their application in this report.
Those factors presented were listed to affirm their existence within the county and community and to provide a base for consideration in the evaluation of that community's crime experience.back to top
RESORT MUNICIPALITY CRIME RATES
On July 10, 1998, section 4 of P.L. 1966, c37(C.52:17B-5.4) was amended to require the Uniform Crime Report to include, in addition to the regular statistics, an alternative calculation that takes into account the seasonal population of resort municipalities.
The Department of Labor has been mandated to determine which municipalities qualify as resort municipalities and certify their annual mean population (which includes seasonal population estimates.)back to top
In order to provide a meaningful statistical profile of crime within the State of New Jersey, each law enforcement agency must provide the Uniform Crime Reporting Unit with data that depicts specific crimes that are occurring within their jurisdiction. There is a need for compatibility with the National Uniform Crime Reporting System and, therefore, categories of offense classifications used within the state are identical with those of the National System. This results in equitable conclusions being drawn from the data submitted.
Reported Part 1 offenses and arrests are recorded in the municipality where they occurred, regardless of the outside investigative agency which may investigate, arrest, or otherwise dispose of the case.
The factors which influence crime rates are dependent upon characteristics of the community. When attempting to interpret the crime statistics presented herein, one should be aware of the social structure and factors that lead to or cause criminal behavior.
Crime rates in this publication are based on the stable population of the municipality. Fluctuating seasonal population figures are too inaccurate to be used as a measurement for determining crime rates. Municipalities with high seasonal populations may indicate a higher crime per one thousand than may be normal for a municipality their size. This would also be indicated in municipalities that experience high population increases due to special events or commuters.
Set forth below are some factors which, by type and volume, will affect the crime rate that occurs from place to place:
THE POLICE POINT OF VIEW
The New Jersey State Police Uniform Crime Reporting Unit surveyed various police agencies of the state, attempting to ascertain their opinion concerning factors contributing to the increase or decrease of specific crimes in their municipality. One of the goals of the Uniform Crime Reporting Unit is to assist police in reducing crime by first identifying its extent, type and location. The following viewpoints are offered with the expectation of reaching this goal.back to top
MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT